Perkembangan dan Kemampuan berbahasa pada Anak Usia Dini

Berbahasa anak usia dini merupakan suatu kegiatan yang meliputi kemampuan mengungkapkan sesuatu, mendengar, dan memahami bahasa dan juga dapat dengan membaca gambar dimana membaca merupakan kegiatan yang bisa ,mengngkapkan bahasa pada anak usia dini dan dilakukan oleh anak usia dini. Membaca merupakan kegiatan yang menyenangkan bagi anak apabila didalam membaca terdapat sesuatu yang menarik untuk anak seperti terdapat gambargambarnya. Anak juga dapat berkreasi dalam mengembangkan bacaan yang dilihat dari gambar yang bermakna suatu tulisan.

Mulyono (2003:200), mengemukakan bahwa membaca merupakan pengenalan simbol-simbol bahasa tulis yang merupakan stimulus yang membantu proses mengingat tentang apa yang di baca, untuk membangun suatu pengertian melalui pengalaman yang telah dimiliki.

Susanto (2010:83), membaca dini ialah membaca yang diajarkan secara terprogram kepada anak prasekolah. Program ini menumpukan perhatian pada perkataan-perkataan utuh, bermakna dalam konteks pribadi anak-anak dan bahanbahan yang di berikan melalui permainan dan kegiatan yang enarik sebagai perantara pembelajaran.

Penggunaan bahasa anak akan berkembang sesuai hukum alam, yaitu mengikuti bakat, kodrat, dan ritme perkembangan yang alami. Namun perkembangan tadi sangat dipengaruhi oleh lingkungan atau oleh stimuli ekstern (pengaruh lingkungan).

Disamping itu bahasa anak terpadu erat dengan alam penghayatannya, terutama dengan emosi atau perasaannya. Hal ini jelas terungkapkan dengan lagu, irama, dan suara anak sewatu ia mengucapkan katakata atau kalimat. Menurut Desmita ( 2009 : 138 ) perkembangan bahasa anak yang sesuai dengan norma tata bahasa, belum bisa selesai pada usia 12-18 tahun.

Oleh karena itu anak harus banyak belajar bicara baik dengan menggunakan bahasa yang halus. Pengembangan kemampuan dasar di TK meliputi beberapa pengembangan berbahasa. Sebagai alat komunikasi, bahasa merupakan sarana yang sangat penting dalam kehidupan anak.

Disamping itu bahasa juga merupakan alat untuk menyatakan pikiran dan perasaan kepada orang lain yang sekaligus berfungsi untuk memahami pikiran dan perasaan orang lain. Mengingat besarnya peranan12 pengembangan bahasa bagi kehidupan anak, maka perlu dikembangkan pada anak didik sejak usia Taman Kanak- Kanak. Pengembangan kemampuan berbahasa di TK bertujuan agar anak didik mampu berkomunikasi secara lisan dengan lingkungannya. Lingkungan yang dimaksudkan adalah lingkungan di sekitar anak antara lain lingkungan teman sebaya, teman bermain, orang dewasa, baik yang ada di sekolah, dirumah maupun dengan tetangga di sekitar tempat tinggalnya

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